JAMES E. B. STUART, the most famous cavalry leader of the Southern Confederacy during the Civil war, was born
in Patrick county, Virginia, in 1833. On graduating from the United States Military Academy, West Point, in 1854,
he was assigned, as second lieutenant, to a regimenf of mounted rifles, receiving his commission in October. In
March, 1855, he was transferred to the newly organized First cavalry, and was promoted to first lieutenant the
following December, and to captain April 22, 1861. Taking the side of the south, May 14, 1861, he was made colonel
of a Virginia cavalry regiment, and served as such at Bull Run. In September, 1861, he was promoted to the rank
of brigadier general, and major general early in 1862. On the reorganization of the Army of Northern Virginia,
in June of the latter year, when R. E. Lee assumed command, General Stuart made a reconnoissance with one thousand
five hundred cavalry and four guns, and in two days made the circuit of McClellan's army, producing much confusion
and gathering useful information, and losing but one man. August 25, 1862, he captured part of Pope's headquarters'
train, including that general's private baggage and official correspondence, and the next night, in a descent upon
Manasses, capturing immense quantities of commissary and quartermaster store, eight guns, a number of locomotives
and a few hundred prisoners. During the invasion of Maryland, in September, 1862, General Stuart acted as rear
guard, resisting the advance of the Federal cavalry at South Mountain, and at Antietam commanded the Confederate
left. Shortly after he crossed the Potomac, making a raid as far as Chambersbnrg, Pennsylvania. In the battle of
Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, General Stuart's command was on the extreme right of the Confederate line. At
Chancellorsville, after "Stonewall "Jackson's death and the wounding of General A. P. Hill, General Stuart
assumed command of Jackson's corps, which he led in the severe contest of May 3, 1863. Early in June, the same
year, a large force of cavalry was gathered under Stuart, at Culpepper, Virginia, which, advancing to join General
Lee in his invasion of Pennsylvania, was met at Brandy Station, by two divisions of cavalry and two brigades of
infantry, under General John I. Gregg, and driven back. During the movements of the Gettysburg campaign he rendered
important services. In May, 1864, General Stuart succeeded, by a detour, in placing himself between Richmond and
Sheridan's advancing column, and at Yellow Tavern was attacked in force. During the fierce conflict that ensued
General Stuart was mortally wounded, and died at Richmond, May 11, 1864.
A Biographical Record
Of Schuyler County, New York
The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company
New York and Chicago 1903.
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