Biography of General Horatio Gates
Celebrated American Biographies





HORATIO GATES, one of the prominent figures in the American war for Independence, was not a native of the colonies but was born in England in 1728. In early life he entered the British army and attained the rank of major. At the capture of Martinico he was aide to General Monkton and after the peace of Aix Ia Chapelle, in 1748, he was among the first troops that landed at Halifax. He was with Braddock at his defeat in 1755, and was there severely wounded. At the conclusion of the French and Indian war Gates purchased an estate in Virginia, and, resigning from the British army, settled down to life as a planter. On the breaking out of the Revolutionary war he entered the service of the colonies and was made adjutant general of the Continental forces with the rank of brigadier general. He accompanied Washington when he assumed the command of the army. In June, 1776, he was appointed to the command of the army of Canada, but was superseded in May of the following year by General Schuyler. in August, 1777, however, the command of that army was restored to General Gates and Septemher 19 he fought the battle of Bemis Heights. October 7, the same year, he won the battle of Stillwater, or Saratoga, and October 17 received the surrender of General Burgoyne and his army, the pivotal point of the war. This gave him brilliant reputation. June 13, 1780, General Gates was appointed to the command of the southern military division, and August 16 of that year suffered defeat at the hands of Lord Corneallis, at Camden, North Carolina. In December following he was superseded in the command by General Nathaniel Greene.

On the signing of the peace treaty General Gates retired to his plantation in Berkeley county, Virginia, where he lived until 1790, when, emancipating all his slaves, he removed to New York City, where he resided until his death, April 10, 1806.


FROM:
A Biographical Record
Of Schuyler County, New York
The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company
New York and Chicago 1903.


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